Focused Ultrasound Therapy
Focused ultrasound is an early stage, noninvasive therapeutic technology with the potential to improve the quality of life and decrease the cost of care for patients with brain tumors. This novel technology focuses beams of ultrasonic energy precisely and accurately on targets deep in the brain without damaging surrounding normal tissue. Where the beams converge, the ultrasound produces a variety of therapeutic effects enabling treatment without incisions or radiation.
Current treatments for brain tumors include surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy, all of which have limitations and side effects. Focused ultrasound has the potential to provide an alternative to invasive surgery or to replace or augment radiosurgery for treatment of tumors in the brain. There are no incisions, no ionizing radiation and no damage to surrounding healthy tissue. Focused ultrasound may also be able to enhance delivery of chemotherapy or immunotherapy, reducing toxicity and side-effects, and/or promote anti-tumor immune responses.
- Focused ultrasound is non-invasive – no incisions, holes in the skull, electrodes in the brain – and therefore has reduced risk for infection, blood clots, and mechanical tissue damage.
- Precise targeting minimizes damage to non-targeted healthy brain.
- Treatment can be a complement to drug therapy, enabling enhanced delivery of chemotherapy or immunotherapy into the brain via temporary opening of the blood-brain barrier and/or enhanced permeability of the blood-tumor barrier.
- Focused ultrasound may potentially induce an anti-tumor immune response.
The following studies are recruiting patients with brain tumors for focused ultrasound treatment:
Exablate Blood Brain Barrier Disruption (BBBD) for Planned Surgery in Glioblastoma
This clinical trial is a feasibility study that will open blood brain barrier prior to surgery in patients with glioblastoma.
Assessment of safety and feasibility of Exablate blood brain barrier disruption for treatment of glioma.
This study is using focused ultrasound to temporarily open the blood-brain barrier prior to maintenance chemotherapy in patients who have already had a surgical resection for glioblastoma. This study is only recruiting citizens of Canada.
BBB Disruption using the NaviFUS system on patients with recurrent glioblastoma.
This study is using a navigation system to localize and open the BBB in patients with recurrent glioblastoma that are scheduled to have additional surgery following the treatment.
A Feasibility Safety Study of Benign Centrally-Located Intracranial Tumors in Pediatric and Young Adult Subjects
Centrally located intracranial benign tumors that require intervention in pediatric and young adult patients. Click here for a list of tumors treated in this study.
ExAblate Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption for Glioblastoma in Patients Undergoing Standard Chemotherapy
A clinical trial at Severance Hospital, a part of Yonsei University Health System, in Seoul, Korea, is investigatig the use of focused ultrasound to open the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and allow chemotherapeutic agents to more efficiently reach the tumors of patients with glioblastoma (GBM).
For a full list of known brain tumor clinical trials, please see here.
Regulatory Approval and Reimbursement
Focused ultrasound is not approved by any regulatory bodies worldwide as a treatment for brain tumors, nor is the treatment reimbursed by medical insurance providers.
Preclinical Laboratory Studies
Preclinical studies are underway to investigate the use of various mechanisms of focused ultrasound in the treatment of brain tumors. Examples of these studies include:
- Focused ultrasound to temporarily disrupt the BBB and deliver a variety of chemotherapy or immunotherapy drugs, including the dosing and timing (e.g. frequency) of drug administration.
- Focused ultrasound to induce an immune response, including a multi-site study investigating the type of immune response elicited by different “modes” of energy delivery.
- Focused ultrasound to enable targeted delivery and/or activation of drugs via carrier vehicles (e.g. microbubbles, nanoparticles, liposomes) to enable delivery of high concentrations in the tumor with minimal systemic side effects.
- Non-thermal mechanical destruction of tumor using a type of focused ultrasound called histotripsy.
There are many government bodies and patient groups dedicated to brain tumors, including the following:
- Medline Plus: A service of the U.S. National Library of Medicine and NIH
- National Cancer Institute's Brain Tumor Page
- American Brain Tumor Association
- National Brain Tumor Society
Suggested Reading: Focused Ultrasound for Glioblastoma (PDF), June 2019.
Yoshida M, Kobayashi H, Terasaka S, Endo S, Yamaguchi S, Motegi H, Itay R, Suzuki S, Brokman O, Shapira Y, Moriyama K, Kawase Y, Akahane T, Kato Y, Kamada H, Houkin K. Sonodynamic Therapy for Malignant Glioma Using 220-kHz Transcranial Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Guided Focused Ultrasound and 5-Aminolevulinic acid. Ultrasound Med Biol. 2019 Feb;45(2):526-538. doi: 10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2018.10.016. Epub 2018 Dec 4 PMID:
Papachristodoulou A, Signorell RD, Werner B, Brambilla D, Luciani P, Cavusoglu M, Grandjean J, Silginer M, Rudin M, Martin E, Weller M, Roth P, Leroux JC. Chemotherapy sensitization of glioblastoma by focused ultrasound-mediated delivery of therapeutic liposomes. J Control Release. 2018 Dec 8;295:130-139. doi: 10.1016/j.jconrel.2018.12.009.
Dong Q, He L, Chen L, Deng Q. Opening the Blood-Brain Barrier and Improving the Efficacy of Temozolomide Treatments of Glioblastoma Using Pulsed, Focused Ultrasound with a Microbubble Contrast Agent. Biomed Res Int. 2018 Nov 11;2018:6501508. doi: 10.1155/2018/6501508. eCollection 2018.
Prada F, Kalani MYS, Yagmurlu K, Norat P, Del Bene M, DiMeco F, Kassell NF. Applications of Focused Ultrasound in Cerebrovascular Diseases and Brain Tumors. Neurotherapeutics. 2018 Nov 7. doi: 10.1007/s13311-018-00683-3.
Goutal S, Gerstenmayer M, Auvity S, Caillé F, Mériaux S, Buvat I, Larrat B, Tournier N. Physical blood-brain barrier disruption induced by focused ultrasound does not overcome the transporter-mediated efflux of erlotinib. J Control Release. 2018 Nov 8;292:210-220. doi: 10.1016/j.jconrel.2018.11.009.
Pi Z, Huang Y, Shen Y, Zeng X, Hu Y, Chen T, Li C, Yu H, Chen S, Chen X. Sonodynamic Therapy on Intracranial Glioblastoma Xenografts Using Sinoporphyrin Sodium Delivered by Ultrasound with Microbubbles. Ann Biomed Eng. 2018 Oct 12. doi: 10.1007/s10439-018-02141-9.
Arvanitis CD, Askoxylakis V, Guo Y, Datta M, Kloepper J, Ferraro GB, Bernabeu MO, Fukumura D, McDannold N, Jain RK. Mechanisms of enhanced drug delivery in brain metastases with focused ultrasound-induced blood-tumor barrier disruption. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018 Sep 11;115(37):E8717-E8726. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1807105115. Epub 2018 Aug 27.
Meng Y, Suppiah S, Surendrakumar S, Bigioni L, Lipsman N. Low-Intensity MR-Guided Focused Ultrasound Mediated Disruption of the Blood-Brain Barrier for Intracranial Metastatic Diseases. Front Oncol. 2018 Aug 28;8:338. doi: 10.3389/fonc.2018.00338. eCollection 2018. Review.
O'Reilly MA, Hynynen K. Ultrasound and Microbubble-Mediated Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption for Targeted Delivery of Therapeutics to the Brain. Methods Mol Biol. 2018;1831:111-119. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4939-8661-3_9.
Lipsman N, Meng Y, Bethune AJ, Huang Y, Lam B, Masellis M, Herrmann N, Heyn C, Aubert I, Boutet A, Smith GS, Hynynen K, Black SE. Blood-brain barrier opening in Alzheimer's disease using MR-guided focused ultrasound. Nat Commun. 2018 Jul 25;9(1):2336. doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-04529-6.
Munoz F, Aurup C, Konofagou EE, Ferrera VP. Modulation of Brain Function and Behavior by Focused Ultrasound. Curr Behav Neurosci Rep. 2018 Jun;5(2):153-164. doi: 10.1007/s40473-018-0156-7. Epub 2018 May 9.
MacDonell J, Patel N, Rubino S, Ghoshal G, Fischer G, Burdette EC, Hwang R, Pilitsis JG. Magnetic resonance-guided interstitial high-intensity focused ultrasound for brain tumor ablation. Neurosurg Focus. 2018 Feb;44(2):E11. doi: 10.3171/2017.11.FOCUS17613.
FUS for Glioblastoma Workshop PDF - November 9-10, 2015
Lin YL, Wu MT, Yang FY. Pharmacokinetics of doxorubicin in glioblastoma multiforme following ultrasound-Induced blood-brain barrier disruption as determined by microdialysis. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2017 Nov 21;149:482-487. doi: 10.1016/j.jpba.2017.11.047.
Click here for additional references from PubMed.
Video courtesy of Insightec