The application of closed skull ultrasound treatment may potentially cause secondary hot spots and
standing waves effects. Standing waves have been shown to be present and potentially contributing to
tissue damage in thrombolysis trials with unfocused low frequency ultrasound as was demonstrated by
a simulation study(Baron et al. 2009). To answer the importance of standing waves and other secondary
hot spots resulting from reflections accurate and validated computer simulations are needed. This
proposal is collaboration between the top ultrasound groups who have experience with simulating
ultrasound propagation through skull. Several different methods have been used for ultrasound field
simulations in the brain (for example (Aubry et al. 2001;Aubry et al. 2003;Clement and Hynynen
2002;Clement et al. 2004;Connor and Hynynen 2004)) and it is not obvious which one of these
programs is the best for standing wave and reflection simulations. In addition it is not clear how well
the programs predict the ultrasound field. Therefore the plan is to compare and validate the various
simulation programs used for brain studies and then use them to investigate the role of reflections and
standing waves in trans-skull ultrasound treatments of brain.
No reports found.